A file is a tool which has multi-tooth. It is used for remove the unwanted material by means the rubbing on the metal. The files are available in many shapes and size.

Classification of the file according to shape, size and the degree of coarseness.

  •  Rough   
  •  Bastard file 
  •  Second cut 
  •  Smoothe 
  •  Dead smooth

The rough file and bastard file are the big cut files. Where material is more the rough file is used. These files have bigger teeth.
Dead smooth file smooth have smaller teeth and used for finishing work. The second cut file has the degree of finish midway between bastard and smooth file.

Classification on the basis of shape and size

The files are available in many shapes and size. The length of the file varies from 4 inches to 14 inches. The shapes available are square, round, triangular, half round, etc.

Number of cuts

According to the cuts, the file are two types

Single cut

In the single cut file, the teeth of the file are cut in parallel rows at 60 degrees to the face.

Double cut

In the double cut file, the teeth of the file are cut in parallel rows and the opposite direction at 60-degree angle.


The number of teeth in one centimeter is called pitch of the file. The number of teeth varies from 10 to 40 in one centimeter.

Use of file

The file is held in perfect and horizontal in position. Most of the files have their teeth pointing forward. So the pressure should be applied in forward stroke. The work is held in a vice after marking. Keep the right hand on the handle and left hand of the left end. The file movement (Forward and backward )speed of 15 to 25 stroke per minute. The rough file is used where material removing is the more and fine file is for finishing work.

Care of file      

  • The teeth should be protected from excessive wearing.    
  • The file should be stored in wooden rake.      
  • Clean the file after use by the file cleaner.     
  • The file should be coated with oil when not in use. 

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