Smithy or Forging is the oldest shaping process used for producing small articles for which accuracy in size is not so important. The parts are shaped by heating them in an open fire or hearth by the blacksmith and shaping them through applying compressive forces using a hammer.
In other Words:-The process of giving the desired shape of a metal piece by heating and hammering is also known as forging. The metal is heated up to a Desire temperature known as a forging temperature. When the forging is done by hand tool manually then it is called hand forging and when the same forging is performed by the power hammering then it is called power forging.
The hand forging process is also known as black-smithy work which is commonly employed for the production of small particles using hammers on heated jobs. It is a manually controlled process even though some machinery such as power hammers can also be sometimes used. Black-smithy is, therefore, a process by which metal may be heated and shaped to its requirements by the use of blacksmith tools either by hand or power hammer.
Advantages of Forging
1. It refines the structure of the metal.
2. It increases strength.
3. It saves time, material and labor.
Forging Tools and Equipment
1.Furnace or Hearth 2.Anvil
5.Chisels 6.Punches and Drifts
9.Set Hammer 10.Bench Vice
Furnace or Hearth
The furnace is to used for heating the metal piece. The furnace consists of four legs and a cast iron or steel body iron bottom a Chimney and below.
The main part of the forging furnace
The iron bottom where a fire is lighted is called Hearth. It is provided with firebrick lining.
A pipe coming from the bottom or rear of the earth is known as Tuyere. It is used to supply the air at high pressure to the furnace.
The upper part of the Furnace is called a hood. it is made up of mild steel with the firebrick inside it.
The chimney is a fit on the upper end of the Hood. it is used for the purpose of easy escaping of exhausting gases and smoke.
Fuel used for Forging
1.Solid fuel ⇒ Coal, Coke, and charcoal
2.Liquid ⇒ Oil
The fuel is commonly used for forging steam coal, coke, and charcoal.
A good fuel should be able to maintain the required forging temperature. It should be cheap and easily available. It should be easy to fire. It should not proceed with excess smoke and fly ash lightning the Fire.
The method for lightened the Fire in the Furnace
The space inside the hearth is filled with softwood. While burning this wood fresh Coke is placed on the one side of the earth. It is slowly brought to the center of the hearth regulating the air supply from the blower. When the Coke catches fire the whole space is filled with Coke. The fire should be as deep as possible inside the center of the hearth.